Machine learning uses techniques from Deep Learning, statistics, and other computer algorithms to imitate how humans learn to perform a specific task.
When applied to a specific task, such as image classification
where one attempts to teach the computer how to label what is in an image. t can learn how to classify different dog breeds at a superhuman level. But using the same model that is specialized on dog breeds, to predict if it is a cat, dog, or a horse, it would fail spectacularly unless it got retrained for the new task.